The Land of the Lune

Chapter 3:  Western Howgills and Firbank Fell

  The Introduction
  The Previous Chapter (Shap Fells and Birkbeck Fells)
  The Next Chapter (Upper Rawtheydale)
chapel beck

Chapel Beck, looking towards Bush Howe

The Lune from Borrow Beck ...

low borrowbridge Right: Low Borrowbridge

Just beyond the Borrow Beck junction at Low Borrowbridge there is a flat, green field that seen from the fells on either side looks like a sports arena, which in a way it was because until the late 19th century a large sheep fair used to be held here, with associated sports and other activities. But long before that, from the 1st to the 4th century, this was the site of a Roman fort.
      Somehow this fact became forgotten, despite the reminder of Borrow (or burgh) Beck, until it was re-discovered in the early 19th century. This is especially surprising since the site has been relatively undisturbed by later building. The fort measures 130m by 100m, adequate for five hundred soldiers. It lies on the Carlisle-Chester route and is the first of three sites of Roman forts that we will meet. Excavations in the 20th century have confirmed the layout of the fort but seem to have uncovered few remains. More has been found at the cemetery to the south, including a tombstone with the touching inscription (not in English, of course): “Gods of the underworld, Aelia Sentica lived for 35 years. Aurelius Verulus erected this stone for his loving wife”. Although the outline of the fort is clear, there is not much to see on the ground, only ramparts along the line of the old walls and on the west side a few ditches. Some claim that, ignoring the railway, motorway and A685 (quite a feat), the line of an aqueduct can be made out running towards the fort from the slopes below Grayrigg Pike.
      Grayrigg Pike is seen by many but noticed by few. The steep crags and slopes around Great Coum and Little Coum make them the most scenic cliffs we have met so far but the rebounding noise of M6 traffic lessens their appeal to walkers.
      The Lune passes under Salterwath Bridge. We have met a few ‘wath’s already and, as you might suspect, it is an old word (Viking, in fact) for a ford. The bridge itself was last rebuilt in 1824. At about this point, the drove road that followed the Lune from Greenholme swung west to skirt Grayrigg and climbed to the Lune watershed, which it more or less followed south to Kirkby Lonsdale.
      Beyond Low Carlingill farm, the Lune meets the most dramatic beck of the Howgills, Carlingill Beck.

Carlingill Beck

Carlingill Beck and the River Lune mark the northwestern boundary of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. Today this seems anomalous. A boundary has to be somewhere but there seems no discernible reason for it to include the southern part of the Howgills but to exclude the northern part, as they are the same in terms of geology and scenery. The boundary is here simply because the old Westmorland-Yorkshire county border lay along Carlingill Beck at the time the National Park was established in 1954.
      [Update: As has been remarked in previous updates, the National Park boundaries were changed in 2016. All of the Howgills are now within the Yorkshire Dales.]

The Yorkshire Dales National Park occupies some 1760 sq km and is the third largest of Britain’s fourteen National Parks. The part we encounter in the Howgills is uncharacteristic of the Dales, which are normally pictured in terms of spectacular limestone scenery. The Yorkshire Dales are no longer all in Yorkshire: the Howgills, Dentdale and Garsdale are in Cumbria. (Some diehards, usually Yorkshiremen, consider that the 1974 boundaries defined new administrative regions and had nothing to do with the traditional counties. The fact that the new regions were also called counties and that many of them used old county names was unfortunate but irrelevant. On that basis, the southern Howgills, Dentdale and Garsdale continue to be in (the traditional county of) Yorkshire and are also in (the new administrative region of) Cumbria.)
      As we will see, only a few of the Dales lie within Loyne – Dentdale, Garsdale, Kingsdale and Chapel-le-Dale. The Lune is the western border for 12km and Lunesdale is not sensibly regarded as one of the Yorkshire Dales.
      Like all British National Parks, the Yorkshire Dales National Park is not state-owned but consists of privately owned estates and farms administered by an authority responsible for conservation and recreation. It is therefore both a tourist attraction and a working area, which even includes some large quarries.

carlingill beck lune's bridge Left: Upper Carlingill Beck, with The Spout middle right
Right: The exposed rocks on the western slopes of Black Force, with Carlin Gill and Grayrigg beyond

      Carlingill Beck is an excellent site for students of fluvial geomorphology (that is, of how flowing water affects the land), providing some good illustrations of post-glacial erosion. The beck arises as Great Ulgill Beck below Wind Scarth and Breaks Head, on a ridge that runs from The Calf, and then curves west at Blakethwaite Bottom, a sheltered upland meadow below Uldale Head. It enters an increasingly narrow gorge, with contorted rock formations exposed on the southern side, giving us our first real view of the Silurian slate of the Howgills. The beck then forms The Spout, which is as much a water shoot as a waterfall, as it tumbles steeply over 10m of tilted rocks. To the north are steep screes and further exposed contorted rocks and below to the south looms the deep, dark gash formed by Little Ulgill Beck.
      Here is Black Force, the most spectacular scene of the Howgills: not one force but a series of cascades, deep within a V-shaped ravine that has remarkable rock formations exposed on its western side. Our journey through the northern Howgills showed us little to hint at the striking degree of erosion hidden within this gill.

black force

Black Force (the scale may be judged by the two walkers and a dog on the path top right - you can’t see them? - precisely)

      Beyond admiring the awesome sights, we might wonder about causes and effects. The benign, smooth slopes of the Howgills do not suggest the convulsions needed to form the contorted rocks seen by Carlingill Beck. Are these contortions limited to Carlingill Beck, or are there similar rock formations hidden elsewhere? If the latter, why have they been so dramatically exposed only here, in such deep gullies, from such relatively small becks? Or did the contortions cause weaknesses that the becks have exploited?
      Below Black Force, Carlingill Beck begins to calm down. It still runs in a narrow valley, with small waterfalls and eroded sides, but, as becks tend to do, it eventually levels off and opens out. The lower parts of Carlingill Beck and its tributaries, especially Grains Gill, still show fine examples of post-glacial erosion, in the form of deep gullies, alluvial fans and cones. The relative absence of human and animal disturbance and the frequency of heavy flooding enable the study of hillside erosion, the changes of flow directions, and the dynamics of debris flow and deposition. Even to the non-expert, the scenes provide remarkable evidence of the continuing impact of erosive forces.
      The beck passes under the old Carlingill Bridge. Being on a county border is a problem for any self-respecting bridge: in 1780, when Carlingill Bridge was dilapidated, Westmorland quarter sessions ordered a contract to rebuild half of it. Happily, the bridge is now all in Cumbria. Unhappily, it was still in need of repair when I last visited. There is a final burst of energy as Carlingill Beck runs through the narrow gorge of Lummers Gill to enter the Lune but, under normal conditions, it still seems far too demure to have caused the effects seen upstream.
      Any walkers who have strolled in Bowderdale and Langdale and are wondering about an outing along Carlingill Beck should be warned that this is a more serious undertaking. Walking by the beck itself involves a fair amount of rough scrambling and, if the beck is high, may be impossible. Black Force cannot be walked up, although it is possible to clamber up the grassy slope to the east. The path to The Spout is increasingly difficult and it likewise becomes impassable, although there is a challenging escape to the north. The public footpath from the south past Linghaw, which can be continued to Blakethwaite Bottom, provides no view into the Black Force ravine.

The Lune from Carlingill Beck ...

fell head fell pony Left: Sheep below Fell Head
Right: Fell pony and the River Lune from Linghaw

According to a generally accepted theory, long ago the Lune used to begin about here. It is believed that the Lune was then formed from the becks that drain south from the Howgills, with all the becks we’ve met up to now (Bowderdale Beck, Langdale Beck, Borrow Beck, and so on) at that time flowing north within the Eden catchment area. The Lune watershed was then south of what is now the Lune Gorge. In time, the headwaters of the Lune eroded northwards to capture Borrow Beck and then all the other becks to divert their flow southward. The evidence for this is complicated, involving the ‘open cols’ to the north through which no water now flows, or much less water than the size of the valleys would suggest; the fact that the flow of the northern becks is discordant to the underlying rocks; and the history of geological uplifts and tilts. The more recent glaciation has obscured most of this evidence for the untutored eye.
      Above the Lune is Gibbet Hill, where the bodies of miscreants were displayed and where alleged eerie noises are now drowned by the M6. The small road to the east of the Lune, Fairmile Road, is along the line of the Roman road that led south from Low Borrowbridge. A part of the Roman road that diverges from the present road was investigated in 1962. At Fairmile Gate, the road crosses Fairmile Beck, which runs from the hills by Fell Head and Linghaw, which are good vantage points for the Lune valley. Fell Head is one of the more identifiable hills of the Howgills, having a covering of heather and hence a dark appearance.
      The Lune reaches the Crook of Lune Bridge, which is the quirkiest of all the Lune bridges. It is a sturdy yet graceful 16th century construction, with two 10m arches and a width of about 2m. Being a little upstream of the two lanes that drop down to it, it makes a tricky manoeuvre for vehicles. It’s as though the 16th century builders wanted to ensure that no 21st century juggernaut could cross.
      At the bridge we meet the Dales Way at exactly the point that it leaves (or enters) the Dales. The Dales Way is a 125km footpath between Ilkley and Bowness-on-Windermere, passing through many of the most attractive dales, especially, if I may say so, this stretch of the Lune.
crook of lune

Crook of Lune Bridge

      Just beyond the bridge, Lummer Gill joins the Lune, having run from Grayrigg Common, through Deep Gill, under the motorway and railway (where, thankfully, they veer away from the Lune valley), past the village of Beck Foot and then under the magnificent curved Lowgill Viaduct. The eleven red arches stand 30m high and seem so thin as to be flimsy but for over a hundred years (1861 to 1964) they carried trains on the Lowgill-Clapham line, a central part of the Loyne railway network. A failure of railway politics meant that it was never used as originally intended, that is, for Ingleton to Scotland traffic – until the winter of 1963 blocked the Settle-Carlisle line. Thanks to the work of the British Railways Board (Residuary) Ltd in 2009 the viaduct is no longer the aerial arboretum it had become, with shrubs and trees sprouting from the track.
lowgill viaduct

Lowgill Viaduct

      The Lune accompanies the Dales Way for 2.5km. This is a gentle, bubbling stream in summer, but a torrent after heavy rain on the Howgills. Debris in the tree branches shows that the floodplains are indeed occasionally under water.
      This is a good stretch along which to spot the dipper, the bird that best represents the spirit of the becks. It is the only passerine (that is, perching bird) that is adapted to aquatic life, in being able to close its ears and nostrils under water, having no air sacs in its bones, and in being able to store more oxygen in its blood than other passerines. It uses its wings to swim under turbulent water in its search for insect larvae. It will be seen bobbing on a rock or flying fast and direct, low over the water.
      The presence of dippers along any beck is a measure of the health of that beck. Sadly, the number of dippers seems to be declining along the Lune and its tributaries, probably because of the damage to riverbanks, where it nests, and the building of weirs for flood control, which reduces the turbulence that dippers need.

The Top 10 birds in Loyne

      1.   Dipper: for its spirit
      2.   Curlew: for its call
      3.   Lapwing: for its flight
      4.   Kingfisher: for its colour
      5.   Skylark: for its song
      6.   Oystercatcher: for its bill
      7.   Heron: for its style
      8.   Hen harrier: for its rarity
      9.   Sand martin: for its nest
      10.   Swan: for its grace
      Honourable mention: the snipe.

      Ellergill Beck, running from Brown Moor past Beck House, and the more substantial Chapel Beck next supplement the Lune. Chapel Beck is the largest beck of the western Howgills. The western slopes below Arant Haw, Calders, Bram Rigg Top, The Calf, White Fell Head and Breaks Head all contribute to it. Its slopes also have two of the clearest paths in the Howgills, on either side of Calf Beck, providing an excellent walk to The Calf. On this walk you would see the Horse of Bush Howe. This is a natural (it seems to me) rocky outcrop in the vague shape of a horse, although there are stories that in the past people devoted a day each year to keeping the horse in shape. (The horse can be seen in the photograph at the beginning of this chapter: it is bisected by the shadow on the hill middle right.) One legend is that it was created as a signal for smugglers in Morecambe Bay. One can only smile at the misguided attempts to add a touch of glamour to the Howgills, and move on.

arant haw

Looking towards Arant Haw and Brant Fell

howgill Right: Holy Trinity Chapel, Howgill

      After Castley Wood, Chapel Beck passes through what is, if anywhere is, the centre of the scattered parish of Howgill, which gives its name to the whole area. The Holy Trinity Chapel, built in 1838, presents an unreasonably pretty picture, with its narrow windows and its neatly shaped bushes and with the old mill, school and cottages nearby. Below the chapel we see an example of the work of the Lune Rivers Trust.
      The Lune Rivers Trust (formerly the Lune Habitat Group) was formed in 1997 to help protect watercourses, regenerate habitats, and encourage the biodiversity of the Lune - and its tributaries, for of course the Lune cannot be healthy if its tributaries are not. The aim is to improve landscapes, reduce erosion and safeguard water quality. The Trust is a public charity aiming to develop coordinated programmes of action involving farmers, land-owners, national parks, government ministries, angling clubs, and anyone else with a concerned interest in the Lune. Some of the Lune’s problems are attributed to the damage that sheep and cattle cause to riverbanks. Therefore, as at Chapel Beck, the Trust has carried out a programme of fencing and tree planting in order to stabilise the banks. So far, some 60km of riverbank have been protected, to benefit wildlife such as otters, water voles, kingfishers and dippers, as well as fish populations.
      The maturing Lune runs deep below grassy slopes, passing under the Waterside Viaduct, which is notable for being the highest bridge across the Lune, 30m above the heads of walkers on the Dales Way. Like the Lowgill Viaduct, the Waterside Viaduct used to carry the Lowgill-Clapham railway and is a fine structure, although here the seven arches are of irregular size and the middle section is of metal. Both viaducts are Grade II listed structures and, like the Lowgill Viaduct, the Waterside Viaduct has recently been renovated.
waterside viaduct

Waterside Viaduct

Walk 6: Lowgill and Brown Moor

Map: OL19 (please read the general note about the walks in the Introduction).
Starting point: The roadside verge by the railway before the road drops down to Beck Foot (610964).
      This walk includes the best stretch of path beside the Lune and a taste of the Howgills, without going to the highest tops. The initial noise of the motorway and railway perhaps adds to our appreciation of the serenity of the Lune valley.
      Walk east to the B6257 (with the Lowgill Viaduct directly ahead) and pass under the viaduct, noticing the packhorse bridge dwarfed under it, to Crook of Lune Bridge. Immediately after the bridge, turn left, taking the path above Nether Fields Wood to Brunt Sike. Then double back, walking across fields to Gate House.
      Continue to Beck House and Beck Houses Gate, beyond which you are on the open fell. Walk up Brown Moor (412m) and stop to admire the view, from Fell Head on the left to Brant Fell on the right. There’s a good view of the so-called Horse of Bush Howe but better is the sight of the neatly interlacing ridges up the various valleys.
      Walk south to Castley Knotts, drop down to the footpath, and follow it through Castley to Gate Side. Walk south on the road and turn right after Chapel Beck, past the Holy Trinity Chapel, and take the track to Thwaite, where the path is rather hidden behind the barn to the left. Continue towards Hole House but don’t go that far: at Smithy Beck drop down to the Lune. Now you follow the Dales Way back to the Crook of Lune Bridge. Route finding is no problem, so you may concentrate on spotting dippers, kingfishers, herons, and other riverside birds.
      From the bridge you could return the way you came or, trusting the OS map (for there is no signpost), turn right across fields to Nether House, which although marked on the map is just a small pile of rubble. Walk up its old drive and detour right along the road for 400m to view the neat, red Railway Terrace. Return past Lowgill Farm, turn left on the B6257 and right through Beck Foot back to the starting point and the noise of modern transport.

Short walk variation: For a short walk I’d suggest heading straight for Brown Moor and back via Castley Knotts. So, walk over the Crook of Lune Bridge, east for 1km, turn left through Riddings, on to Gate House, then up to Brown Moor and Castley Knotts, and back west past Castley and Cookson’s Tenement and on 3km to the starting point.

vale of  lune chapel Right: The stained glass windows of the Vale of Lune chapel, which illustrate nature rather than religious themes

      The Lune accepts the tributary of Crosdale Beck, which runs off the slopes of Arant Haw, and moves towards the 17th century Lincoln’s Inn Bridge. Sadly, Mr Lincoln and his inn are no longer with us, and some might wish the same of the bridge, as it makes a narrow, awkward turn on the busy A684. Like most bridges, it forms a better impression from the riverside.
      Here we detect some pride in being next to the Lune, for as well as the farm of Luneside there is, just along the A684, a Vale of Lune Chapel, now called St Gregory’s. This was built in the 1860s, whilst the railway line was being constructed, and, judging from its unusual, robust design, it may have been built by rail workers. This supposition is perhaps supported by a comment in a booklet about the chapel that it was designed to be “a plain building of studied ugliness”. Would a proper architect take on such a challenge?
      Opposite Luneside, Capplethwaite Beck enters the Lune.

Capplethwaite Beck

Capplethwaite Beck and its tributary Priestfield Beck run from Firbank Fell behind the ridge to the west of the Waterside Viaduct. This unprepossessing moor is known only for two things: Fox’s Pulpit and its magnificent views of the Howgills.
      From the plaque at Fox’s Pulpit there is a view south along the Lune valley to the Ward’s Stone ridge of Bowland Fells, 35km away. However, there is no view of the Howgills, which is strange. One of the Quaker beliefs, as noted in Fox’s journal, is that “the steeplehouse and that ground on which it stood were no more holy than that mountain”. Surely Fox would have positioned himself about 200m east so that when expressing such a sentiment he could gesture towards the Howgills. That would convince anyone, and I could even imagine listening to a three-hour sermon myself if I could look at the Howgills at the same time. There is still a graveyard by Fox’s Pulpit but the church that Fox disdained has left in a huff, demolished by a gale in 1839.

Fox’s Pulpit marks one of the few events in Loyne to be considered of national importance. Here on June 13th 1652 George Fox preached to one thousand people for three hours, according to his own journal, an event nowadays often regarded as establishing the Society of Friends (or Quakers).
      The Quaker movement has been particularly influential in the Loyne region. No doubt the emphasis on equality and on the spirituality within people, rather than churches, rituals and sacraments, appealed to independent, poor northerners.
      The mid 17th century – Oliver Cromwell, Civil Wars, and so on – was a fertile, if challenging, time for non-conformist religious movements but Quakerism was a social movement as well, because the promotion of equality naturally upset the privileged, powerful members of society who did not receive from Quakers the respect or deference they expected. This partly explains the years of persecution suffered by Quakers. Fox himself was imprisoned seven times.
      It also explains the large number of ‘meetinghouses’ that we will pass. Quakers did not build churches, as it was against their beliefs and would have been asking for trouble. To begin with, they met within one another’s houses. In some Loyne valleys almost every farmstead may be described as an old Quaker meetinghouse – that is, an old farmstead within which Quakers met. After the Restoration of the monarchy (1660), matters gradually improved for Quakers but the laws under which they had been persecuted were not ended until the 1689 Act of Toleration.

      Incidentally, given the Quakers’ views on the established church, is it coincidence that the two becks’ names (Capplethwaite (chapel-meadow?) and Priestfield) should assert their religiosity?
      The name of Firbank is in fact known for a third reason, at least by Australians: Firbank Grammar School is one of the leading private schools in Australia. Another coincidence? No, it was established in 1909 by Henry Lowther Clarke, archbishop of Australia, who was born at New Field, Firbank, 1 km south of Fox’s Pulpit.
      The footpaths of Loyne pass through many hundreds of farmsteads. I have found (with but one exception, which I prefer not to dwell upon) that residents welcome, or at least accept or are resigned to, strangers wandering through their yards. I have also found an extraordinary range of objects within these yards, showing that many farmsteads are no longer farming or have needed to diversify in order to supplement their farming income, which is indicative of the continually evolving rural character of Loyne. For example, at Shacklabank, 2km south of Fox’s Pulpit, there is a gypsy caravan in the yard (actually, I recall a set of them but the website says that there is only one: I will have to return and count them or it). This provides accommodation for visitors on “free range walking holidays” or who consider mucking in on the farm a holiday. This development received a Cumbria Tourism Award in 2008.
      Capplethwaite Beck runs past the 16th century Capplethwaite Hall, which was the home of the Morland family, one of whom, Jacob, was painted in 1763 by George Romney before he became so obsessed with Emma (later Lady) Hamilton that he painted her sixty times. This portrait is now in the Tate Britain gallery, and a grand figure he looks, although not as grand as the Howgills behind, which unfortunately he is obscuring.

western howgills

The western Howgills from Dillicar

Walk 7: Fox’s Pulpit and the Waterside Viaduct

Map: OL19 (please read the general note about the walks in the Introduction).
Starting point: Killington New Bridge (623908).
      Walk south by the Lune to Bowersike and take the track up to Greenholme, where there’s a good view back to Winder, Baugh Fell and Middleton Fell. Through Greenholme, follow the wall on the right that swings north. Across a small beck, the track turns west towards a plantation where there’s a reassuring footpath sign. It’s quiet here, among the bracken and heather, but from the corner of the plantation you see, a few kilometres away, reminders of the 21st century – Killington Service Station and the Lambrigg wind turbines.
      Beyond the plantation the path drops down to a white gate, where you turn right to another white gate, from which there is a view of the Howgills from Winder to Fell Head. Note the prominent white building 2km ahead (New Field), which is your next objective.
      Cross the A684. There is no clear path on the CRoW land but make your way across to Ghyll Farm, which is on Capplethwaite Beck. There seem to be no signposts at Ghyll Farm, so be careful to turn left off the drive, before a barn, heading north. After 500m you reach the white building you noted before.
      From New Field, walk 1km along the road to Fox’s Pulpit. By now, you might appreciate that Fox did well to attract a thousand people up here. Walk east across the CRoW land of Knotts and, when the view ahead is revealed, pause to relate the panorama to your map – in particular, identify the large farm of Hole House, 1km northeast. Head in the general direction of Hole House until you reach either a wall or a clear footpath running north-south (between Stocks and Whinny Haw). In the former case, follow the wall to the right until the footpath is reached.
      Walk to Stocks and continue on the road north but before Goodies turn right over the old railway line and cross the Lune footbridge. Walk up by Smithy Beck to Hole House. You are now on the well sign-posted Dales Way. Follow this for 3km past the Waterside Viaduct, Lincoln’s Inn Bridge and Luneside.

Short walk variation: From the bridge, walk west, first on the road and then on a footpath, to Grassrigg. Walk south 200m to gain the footpath that runs north above Grassrigg. Cross the A684 and take the path to Shacklabank. Walk north for 500m to take the path that drops through Hawkrigg Wood, across the B6257, to Lincoln’s Inn Bridge. Follow the Dales Way south and where it turns left to The Oaks, turn right to the Lune and back to Killington New Bridge.

The Lune from Capplethwaite Beck ...

killington stangerthwaite Left: The Lune at Killington New Bridge
Right: The Lune at Stangerthwaite

Paddlers (in a canoe, that is) feel the adrenaline rising as they and the Lune approach the next section, which includes a narrow rapid called the Strid that drops 2m into a large pool. This is the liveliest part of the whole Lune, as it tumbles through and over sloping rocks and into deep pools, and one of the most challenging canoeing stretches in northwest England. (An experienced outdoor instructor died here in 2007.) It may be viewed from a footpath that leads north from Killington New Bridge. The bridge has a single 18m arch and is not new. A proposal to build holiday chalets in the field southwest of the bridge would, if accepted, enable many more visitors to enjoy, or spoil, the scenic tranquillity of the region.
      At the bridge there used to be a notice: “SAA No canoeing”. I expect that SAA is the Sedbergh Angling Association but I was unsure of the legal status of their notice. The SAA presumably owns the banks and can insist upon private fishing. Does it own the Lune too? Can it prevent others using the Lune? Obviously, they would prefer canoeists not to tangle their lines and disturb their fish. Indeed, I would prefer canoeists not to disturb the dippers, kingfishers, and other wildlife (and anglers not to disturb salmon, come to that). Nevertheless, canoeists do tackle the Lune and its tributaries, with or without permission, and good luck to them. The notice was replaced in 2008 to read “Private fishing SAA”, which seems more reasonable.
      Canoeists will, I imagine, be also concerned with the dangerous-looking weir that follows at Broad Raine. Further south, at Stangerthwaite, the public bridleway and ford seem impenetrable, at least to horses and vehicles. It used to link two tracks, one of which leads up to Four Lane Ends, the other three old lanes now forming the A683 and B6256.
      After this turbulent stretch, the Lune swings west to meet the largest tributary so far, the River Rawthey.
ch3 map
  The Introduction
  The Previous Chapter (Shap Fells and Birkbeck Fells)
  The Next Chapter (Upper Rawtheydale)

    © John Self, Drakkar Press