The Land of the Lune

Chapter 14:  The Salt Marshes

  The Introduction
  The Previous Chapter (The Lune to Lancaster)
  The Next Chapter (Into Morecambe Bay)
bazil point

Bazil Point, Overton

The Lune from Lancaster ...

Beyond Carlisle Bridge the Lune swings south and takes on a different character - in fact, two characters and all shades in between. If the tide is out and there is little water flowing down the Lune, it is a gentle, low river, with sandy, or at least lightly muddy, beaches, providing long, flat views. If the tide is in and the Lune is flowing high, then it becomes a wide, raging river, threatening flood defences.
      These conditions give rise to the characteristic coastal salt marshes of the lower Lune. The marshes form from marine alluvium deposited in sheltered areas that are covered only by occasional high tides. Aldcliffe Marsh, Heaton Marsh, Colloway Marsh, Lades Marsh and Glasson Marsh continue for 6km, on both banks of the Lune, down to Morecambe Bay. There’s an esoteric appeal to these remote, simple, almost primeval, landscapes, often aglow under the setting sun. The land is naturally flat and open, heavily fissured with creeks, and littered with the debris of high tides and floods. If grazed the marshes are a close-cut, deep green; if not, they are in summer full of colourful flowers such as thrift and sea asters.

golden ball Right: The Lune at the Golden Ball

      The Lune passes Salt Ayre, which, like Green Ayre upriver, used to be an island (the parish boundary, which presumably follows the old course of the river, runs through Salt Ayre). It is now a sizable hill, of which the good citizens of Lancaster and Morecambe may be proud – it is created from their rubbish. Beyond Salt Ayre is the Golden Ball pub, facing the detritus left by tidal waters. It is known as ‘Snatchems’ because of the legend that passing ships short of crewmembers would grab inebriated drinkers from the pub, a tradition that has sadly lapsed. A similar custom would be welcome for the modern pest, the jet-skiers who are increasingly ruining the calm of the Lune estuary, now that they are no longer allowed on Windermere.

aldcliffe marsh Left: Aldcliffe Marsh, looking towards the Lakeland hills

      The salt marshes require peace – not for us, because the winding creeks and glutinous mud make this dangerous territory, but for the thousands of birds that gather here. There are no buildings on the marshes and the isolation and, ideally, tranquillity make this fine feeding and roosting ground for many wildfowl and wading birds, such as Bewick’s swans, little egrets, ringed plovers and spotted redshanks.

pylons Right: Two lines of pylons from Heysham Power Station marching over the old breakwaters on the Lune

      Inland of the salt marshes are low coastal drumlins. They are oval-shaped, aligned north to south, indicating the direction of glacial flow. The scattered farmsteads are sited on the gentle slopes above the poorly drained pastures, with the few trees bent by the prevailing wind. The whole peninsula south of Morecambe reaches no higher than Colloway Hill (36m). Inland of the low Heaton-Colloway ridge is a wide, flat expanse, formerly of bogs and mosses but now reclaimed pasture, with many ditches lined with rushes. Seawaters have no doubt inundated the area in the past. Today, it is traversed by power lines from the nuclear power station and by the A683 to Heysham, for people travelling to the many caravan parks nestling by the power station.
      On the east bank, the land rises to the old village of Aldcliffe, which has managed to remain detached from Lancaster. It has not, however, managed to retain its old hall, once known as the Hall of the Catholic Virgins. In the 17th century Aldcliffe Hall was the property of ten sisters of Thomas Dalton of Thurnham, who was killed at Newbury fighting for Charles I. Seven of them were convicted of recusancy in 1640 and much of their estate sequestered (this, as mentioned in the previous chapter, was the period when Catholic priests were being executed in Lancaster). After the restoration of Charles II, two of the sisters felt bold enough in 1674 to set up a stone inscription saying (in Latin) “Catholic virgins are we; even with time we disdain to change.” They were too bold, it transpired, for after the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715 the government enquired into all estates held by Catholics and duly confiscated Aldcliffe Hall, considering that it was “given to Popish and superstitious uses”.
      The hall, or rather its replacement built in 1817, was demolished in 1960. The land is now occupied by peaceful suburbia. It would not, however, still be peaceful if the 1998 proposal for a western bypass from the M6 at Hampson Green across the Lune to Heysham had been approved. The road would have passed within 200m of Aldcliffe. Residents argued that a northern bypass would be better but, in the end, they were saved more by the bats and great crested newts, both European protected species.
      Along the Lune the flat horizons are broken only by the tall pylons from Heysham Power Station. If these should seem alien to you it might help to recall the words of Stephen Spender in his 1933 poem ‘The Pylons’, a poem that heralded a new school of poets, the Pylon Poets, who used technological imagery as themes. He wrote “... Pylons, those pillars bare like nude giant girls that have no secret ...”. Nude girls?! - I think I prefer to continue to see them as eyesores.
      The ridge between the Lune and the A6 continues south, past the old village of Stodday, where the wooded gardens of the secluded Lunecliffe Hall (formerly Stodday Lodge) were said to have Roman remains, to its highest point at Burrow Heights (59m), below which Burrow Beck runs to the Lune.

Burrow Beck

ashton memorial Left: The Jessie Ashton Memorial

We followed the Roman road down the Lune valley, from the Fairmile Road near Tebay, past Over Burrow, by the assumed road that ran past the milestone found at Caton, and on to the fort at Lancaster. Fine place though it is, Lancaster is unlikely to have been the Romans’ final destination. Common sense tells us that, in addition to the high road we met crossing the Bowland Fells above Lowgill, there would be a road heading south on the low coastal plains. And remembering Low Borrowbridge and Over Burrow, the name of Burrow Beck, flowing around Burrow Heights, will raise our suspicions.
      Sure enough, aerial photographs indicate an old road to the east of the trig point on Burrow Heights, leading towards the Roman road known to pass east of Garstang, heading for Ribchester. More tangibly, four carved figures and two pillars were found near Burrow Heights in the late 18th and early 19th century. The pillars are usually described as milestones although they are half the height of the Caton milestone and their inscriptions only honour the emperor, without giving distances anywhere.
      Other finds confirm that a road set off from Lancaster along the line of what is now Penny Street. Evidence is still being uncovered. In 2005 a memorial plaque or headstone, over 1m square, was found north of the canal by Aldcliffe Road. The inscription is to Insus, son of Vodullus, and the stone depicts a soldier on horseback above a kneeling, decapitated man. The Lancaster Roman Cavalry Tombstone, as it is now called, is on display in Lancaster City Museum
      Burrow Beck runs quietly for 7km from just east of the Ashton Memorial in Williamson Park through Bowerham and Scotforth, the southern suburbs of Lancaster, to Ashton Hall by the Lune. The memorial and the park were given to Lancaster by, and named after, the industrialist, James Williamson, later Lord Ashton. When ennobled in 1895, he named himself after the manor of Ashton, where he had bought the hall in 1884. He also gave to Lancaster the Town Hall and the Victoria Monument, with a mural of Victorian worthies, including his father. All this, together with his high-profile roles as Liberal MP, High Sheriff, town councillor, justice of the peace, and so on, might suggest that he was no shrinking violet but he was apparently a very private man. He did not allow any portraits of himself in the Town Hall: the imposing one that now stands at the top of the main stairway was added later.
      Williamson Park was created in 1881 from the old Lancaster Moor quarry, stones from which had been used to build most of Lancaster’s houses. The neo-classical Ashton Memorial of 1909 is often described as a folly, which my dictionary defines as “a building of strange or fanciful shape, that has no particular purpose.” That seems a slander on the designer (John Belcher) and a slur to the second wife of Lord Ashton, for whom it was intended as a memorial. If we called it the Jessie Ashton Memorial then we wouldn’t mistake it for self-aggrandizement. It is said that the lady with whom Lord Ashton took up after his wife’s death demurred at such an ostentatious memorial to her predecessor in the lord’s affections. The plaque in the memorial merely says that it is to the Ashton family.
      Today, it is the most prominent landmark in Lancaster, a proud symbol to all who pass on the M6. However, before it was restored in 1987, Lancaster residents seemed to disown it. According to the Lancaster City Museum exhibit, Lord Ashton left Lancaster in high dudgeon in 1911 to live at Lytham St Anne’s. Writing to the local paper, he said that some of his workforce had become “disloyal and discontented” by joining trade unions and voting Labour. In return, the locals were content to let the memorial (which they called ‘the structure’) fall into decay, which it did. Their attitude may have been coloured by the fact that unlike most other industrial philanthropists of the time he did not provide any buildings of direct use to his workers. He did, however, kindly provide a footbridge by Carlisle Bridge so that his Skerton workforce could get to his factory.
      Lord Ashton’s main home was Ryelands House in Skerton rather than the grand Ashton Hall. The hall had been rebuilt in 1856 to retain a tower probably of the 14th century. The manor of Ashton was part of the lands of Roger of Poitou until taken over by the Lancaster family in 1102. Over the centuries, the estate passed through the hands of the Laurences, the Gerards, the Gilberts, the Hamiltons, and the Starkies, before reaching the Williamsons. The hall is now the headquarters of Lancaster Golf Club.
      Burrow Beck runs across the golf course, through an ancient fishpond, into a lake, and under the old Lancaster-Glasson railway line, completed in 1883, before dribbling into the Lune. Lord Ashton had a private railway station (Waterloo) at which trains could be flagged down.
      A further kilometre south the River Conder crosses salt marsh into the Lune.
haaf fisherman

The Lune after Burrow Beck joins, with a fisherman trying a variant of the traditional method of haaf netting

The River Conder

baines cragg Left: Baines Cragg baines cragg2
Right: Across Cragg Wood from Baines Cragg

The River Conder arises at the Conder Head spring to the north of Clougha and flows west through Cragg Wood to the parish of Quernmore. The parish stretches 10km from Halton to Ellel and has long been settled. Two Roman kilns have been found, one below Lythe Brow Wood and the other near the village of Quernmore. In medieval times, Quernmore was a hunting forest, at one time in the charge of the Gernets of Halton and later passing into the hands of the Duchy of Lancaster. It was sold by the crown in 1630. The present Quernmore Park Hall was built in 1794 by Thomas Harrison for the Gibson family.
      On Birk Bank there is a large three-arched bridge over Ottergear Clough and two sturdy towers. The function of these structures is unclear although they presumably have something to do with the Thirlmere Aqueduct. Below these slopes a few areas of reed bed, a rare habitat for Loyne, are being restored, perhaps to enable bearded tit and marsh harrier to breed. The Conder merges with Mother Dyke, from near Quernmore Park Hall, and passes the isolated St Peter’s Church, built in 1834.
      At Conder Mill, below the now ornamental pond, it is joined by Rowton Brook, which arises, properly enough, on Rowton Brook Fell on the south flank of Clougha Pike (413m). Clougha Pike is not really a peak, although it looks so from the southwest, but is merely the end of the westerly ridge from Ward’s Stone. Its position offers an extensive panorama that includes, circling from the east: Ward’s Stone, Hawthornthwaite Fell, Snowdon (on a very clear day), Blackpool Tower, Morecambe Bay, the Isle of Man (on a clear day), the Lakeland fells, the Howgills, Whernside and Ingleborough. At closer quarters is a view of the Lune valley, from its estuary up to the Lune Gorge in the Howgills.
      In 1851 it was proposed to use the waters of Rowton Brook for a reservoir to supply water to Lancaster. However, the city architect Edmund Sharpe asked, “why … are we to drink the miserable storage of a dribbling brook, four miles off, when we have at our very feet the magnificent storage of the river Lune, through which a whole river runs daily to change and purify it?” In the end, it was decided, rather cheekily, to use the nearby Grizedale Brook, which drains to the Wyre, for the reservoir. The Lune was used much later.
      To the north of Rowton Brook the jumbles of millstone grit provide evidence of the quarrying of querns that gave the region its name. In the fields you may well see sheepdogs at work and, if not, you will certainly hear them within Rooten Brook Farm, where a dozen dogs are housed. These are no ordinary dogs – they are the dogs of the champion sheepdog trialling family, the Longtons. Tim Longton senior won the English National in 1949 and his son, Tim junior, won it five times from 1965. So renowned was the latter that the first programme of the BBC’s One Man and his Dog, explaining the nature of sheepdog trialling, was filmed at Rooten Brook Farm. The fourth generation Longton, Michael, won the English National in 2004 at the young age of 24.

The Top 10 viewpoints in Loyne

      1.   Clougha Pike
      2.   Great Knoutberry Hill
      3.   Wild Boar Fell
      4.   Orton Scar
      5.   Ingleborough
      6.   Combe Top, Middleton Fell
      7.   Caton Moor
      8.   Hornby Road, Roeburndale
      9.   Whinfell Beacon
      10.   Brownthwaite Pike

Walk 23: Ward’s Stone

Map: OL41 (please read the general note about the walks in the Introduction).
Starting point: Near Little Cragg (546618).
      There are three conditions for this walk: no closure of the access area for grouse shooting (this is allowed for up to 28 days a year: ring 0845 100 3298 if you want to check), no dogs and (preferably) good visibility. With few features marked on the map, I’ll give the OS grid reference for strategic points.
      From Little Cragg Ward’s Stone can be seen 5.5km southeast on the horizon but a direct route would involve much scrambling over heather and rocks. So set off in the opposite direction, west down the road, past Baines Cragg. After Bark Barn, climb a stile on your left, walk south across the infant Conder on a permissive footpath and enter CRoW land (at 537613). Keep on the track. After cairns on the right (at 541605), the track swings left and becomes less steep. With three cubic structures visible ahead, note a small post just after a large rocky outcrop on the left (at 552596).
      [Update: The small post has disappeared - but the large rocky outcrop is still there!]
      At a junction of tracks (at 560597), follow the sign pointing right. At the next side-track, not marked on OS maps (at about 562592), turn left, ignoring the sign pointing ahead. Initially the track heads direct to Ward’s Stone but it then curves left and then right. As you approach the shooters’ hut (at about 585588), note Ward’s Stone to its right and imagine your route. Scramble up behind the hut, aiming for a cone-shaped stone on the horizon, and proceed to Ward’s Stone.
      [Update: The 'next side-track' referred to is marked on recent OS maps.]
      At Ward’s Stone the panorama is revealed, with the Three Peaks, the Lakeland fells, the Lune estuary, and your starting (and finishing) point. Ward’s Stone (560m) is sadistic: after battling to the stone, you find that the official top, just 1m higher (the highest point of the Bowland Fells), is at a second trig point, visible 1km away. Climb the stone to get 1m above the first trig point and settle for that.
      Head west on the ridge path and after 2km (at 565588) turn right at the track you meet. After a few minutes, ignore the track off to the right – you went that way earlier. Ignore the second track to the right, as you did earlier. The cubes, with enigmatic plinths, come into view to the left. Pass below the cubes and reach the rocky outcrop with the little post. (If you miss the post, just continue back the way you came.) Turn right here (at 552596) on a path that heads towards the Caton Moor wind turbines. Small posts mark the way but they are difficult to see. Some kind souls are creating cairns.
      The path continues towards the wind turbines and then curves left. A wall is seen 50m to your right (at 551608): the Conder Head spring is just to the left. Keep the wall to your right until a stile is seen ahead. Climb the stile, turn right by Sweet Beck and walk past Skelbow Barn to Little Cragg.

Short walk variation: The obvious short walk is to follow the long walk as far as the small post (at 552596) and then turn left and follow the last part of the long walk. A shorter walk is possible along a path that runs east south of Cragg Wood to cross the beck from the Conder Head spring and on to Sweet Beck.

quernmore Right: Across Quernmore to Clougha

      The village of Quernmore has only a converted barn or two, a row of new dwellings by Rowton Brook and a residence called Temperance House, dated 1826. The temperance movement was at that time becoming more powerful. Lancaster’s Temperance Society was formed in 1833 and at one time Lancaster had twelve temperance hotels.
      As you follow Rowton Brook west, you may be increasingly overcome by the nauseous stench from the mushroom farms near Nether Lodge. In 2002 thirty-three illegal immigrants were found working here and deported. The mushroom farms are an anomalous presence in the Quernmore valley, for it is a rich agricultural area that seems wasted on mushroom sheds.
      Conder Mill Bridge is only wide enough for a stream 2m across. Something seems awry here. The Langthwaite ridge to the west rises 100m above the Conder and is 4km from Clougha Pike. The valley seems far too broad and deep for such a trickle. And indeed it is, for before the Ice Age the Lune ran through this valley, until glacial deposits blocked its path.
      The engineers’ attempt to defy this process of nature by laying a pipe through the Quernmore valley to take water from the Lune to the Wyre was sadly rebuffed by nature itself, when an explosion at the valve house in Abbeystead in 1984 killed sixteen people. The investigation found that the explosion was caused by the ignition of methane but that “the likelihood of a flammable atmosphere arising there had not been envisaged” – which seems an oversight given the history of coal mining in the area.
      The Langthwaite ridge from Knots Wood to Hazelrigg is formed from millstone grit overlain by boulder clay and supports mixed farming and woodland. It separates the coastal drumlin fields of Lancaster and its surroundings from the glacial sands and clay drift of Quernmore. As might be expected, communication masts are prominent.
      The River Conder runs through the fishery and golf course of Forrest Hills, set up in 1996 and another example of rural diversification, this time of the farm of Banton House. It is now also a resource centre with green credentials, part of the Bowland Sustainable Tourism network, which (simplifying) is concerned with attracting visitors to an area without spoiling it.
      Below Forrest Hills the Conder crosses the Kit Brow stepping stones, where, as for all Loyne’s becks, the ‘trickle’ is not always so. Lancaster University holds an annual race over the stepping stones, which one year were far under water, and I became so as well when I was washed away from the safety rope provided.
      The Conder passes the small village of Ellel and the larger one of Galgate. Galgate has the misfortune to be bisected twice, by the A6 and the west coast main line railway. Perhaps that serves it right, for having a name proclaiming it to be the gate or road to Galloway. The only building of note is the old mill, which is said to be the first mechanical silk mill in England. It was bought as a corn mill in 1792, converted to spin silk, and operated until 1970. It now houses “the country’s largest bathroom emporium” and various smaller units.

glasson canal Left: Glasson Canal

      The marina on the Lancaster Canal is relatively peaceful although the public moorings are busy on summer weekends. Just south of here the canal begins a branch to Glasson, completed in 1826 with six locks. In the dry summer of 2006, the branch was closed for periods because the water levels were too low – which raises a question: where does canal water come from? Lancaster Canal itself is supplied by Killington Reservoir but for the Glasson branch most of its water is taken from the River Conder, small as it is and as a result even smaller than it should be.
      The Conder runs slowly west, north of the canal, passing Thurnham Mill, now the Mill Inn. The mill operated using water from the canal, which is possible only through being next to a lock. To the south is Thurnham Hall, with an interesting history.
      The usual pattern with the grand halls of Loyne is that for centuries they provided a home for the family at the apex of the local rural hierarchy; in the 18th or 19th century they may have been bought by a newly-rich industrialist; either way, the residents continued to lead the gentrified country life until the middle of the 20th century when societal changes meant that the halls had to be converted to some other use, such as offices, a school or flats. Thurnham Hall followed this pattern, with unhappy consequences.
      Thurnham Hall was the manorial home from the 12th century and was bought by Robert Dalton in 1556. The Daltons continued to buy land around Lancaster, to become the largest landowner in the region. Dalton Square and nearby streets in Lancaster are named after members of the Dalton family. The Daltons were staunch Catholics, as we saw with Aldcliffe Hall, and funded the nearby Church of St Thomas and St Elizabeth, built in 1745. After the Daltons left in the mid 20th century, the hall lapsed until it was restored in 1973, to be a classy restaurant for a while.
      It was then bought to form the centrepiece of a timeshare operation, Thurnham Leisure Group, with headquarters in Lancaster. Holiday courtyards and a swimming pool were built around the hall. However, amid rising complaints from customers, the Group crashed in 2004 leaving a £5m debt. The managing director, Fred Fogg, was given a two-year prison sentence for conspiring to defraud finance companies. Sunterra Europe, with a head office in Lancaster but part of the US-based Sunterra company, acquired the hall and other property, plus the irate customers, for £2m. Sunterra Europe was put up for sale in 2006 and bought by Diamond Resorts International for £350m. However, the Diamond Resorts office on Caton Road seems somewhat inactive (or empty: it is hard to tell without peering through the darkened windows). Today it is an unnerving experience to walk on the public footpath amongst the possibly disgruntled holidaymakers of Thurnham Hall Country Club. Perhaps the renowned ghosts of Thurnham Hall are restless.
      For its last kilometre the Conder is tidal, with the nearby roads occasionally under water, especially the one to Glasson, which was badly flooded in 2002. In the tranquil meanders derelict craft fall and rise but seem never to be resurrected. Above the flood level is the Stork, a 17th century inn that has retained something of its old character. By the viaduct for the old Lancaster-Glasson railway line is the Conder Green picnic site, which is on the route of the 220km Lancashire Coastal Way. The Conder Green salt marshes are not grazed and as a result have a great variety of plants, including the rare lax-flowered sea-lavender.

conder and stork

The Conder (three times) at the Stork, Conder Green

The Lune from the Conder ...

glasson marina Left: Glasson marina Glasson Watch House
Right: Glasson Watch House

East of the Conder the Lune passes Glasson, which is part port, part resort, but not much of either. On a fine day, with a sea breeze gently fluttering the mastheads in the marina, it makes a pleasant outing, although there is not much to do or to see, apart from leisurely activity about the boats. There is no beach or seaside promenade, and only a few old-style catering establishments, with two pubs.
      A large barrier separates the Lune, and hence the sea, from a dock that was completed in 1787 after the Lancaster Port Commission resolved to build it for ships unable to navigate the Lune to reach the new St George’s Quay. Before then, the area was a marsh, with the farms of Brows, Crook and Old Glasson to the south.
      The dock did not flourish for long, against competition from better docks at Preston and Fleetwood, although the Glasson Group of companies is still an active importer, especially of animal feedstuffs. Still standing are the Custom House (which functioned from 1835 to 1924) and the Watch House (built 1836), which with typical Loyne immodesty is claimed to be the smallest lighthouse in England. A nearby dry dock for ship repair functioned from 1841 to 1968, when it was filled in to become an area for light industry. The Port of Lancaster Smoke House, winner of the 2007 North West Fine Food Producer of the Year award, is on the West Quay.
      A further barrier separates the dock from the large marina on the Glasson branch of the Lancaster Canal. Commercial traffic ended long ago but canal-based tourism is now Glasson’s main occupation. This it supplements with other unassuming activities: an annual folk-music festival; the racing of radio-controlled laser boats in the marina; a weekend gathering point for bikers.

overton church Left: St Helen’s Church, Overton

      The railway, arriving late (1883) and departing early (1930 for passengers, 1964 for freight), left little trace in Glasson, apart from Railway Place, a group of cottages that pre-date the railway. The line of the track now forms part of the Lancashire Coastal Way, which continues over the barrier separating dock and marina, through Glasson, and up Tithe Barn Hill, which at a magnificent height of 20m provides a fine view, often with excellent sunsets, across the estuary to Overton and Sunderland, with the Lakeland hills beyond. There’s a 360º view-indicator and five benches, all facing Heysham power station.
      Overton, across the Lune, is an ancient village, appearing as Oureton in the Domesday Book. Modern building for commuters surrounds the old core of the village, leaving few signs of the traditional activities of shipbuilding and fishing. Even so, the aroma of the fields and the sea remains. Farms are still active in and around the village, and twice a day the tide laps on its shores. A walk around Bazil Point, from where there used to be a ferry to Glasson, involves stepping through tidal debris but provides open views across the marshes and the Lune estuary.
      The most notable feature of Overton is St Helen’s Church, which is said to be the oldest church in Lancashire. The church itself is more reticent, claiming only, on a notice board inside, that the west wall is “11th century or earlier” and that other parts, such as the doorway arches, are “of about 1140”. Whatever its age, it must have been one of the most isolated of early churches. In outward appearance, the church is rather colourless, with uninspired windows. Inside, however, the small church is transformed, with the windows now enlivened. The arrangement is novel, with a gallery to the west, the pulpit by the south wall, and the 1830 extension on the north side having no view of the altar to the east.
      South of Overton, the tidal Lades Marsh used to be the outlet for the low-lying expanse between Heysham and the Heaton-Colloway ridge. Once known as Little Fylde, it was, like big Fylde, a waterlogged wasteland. A remnant can be seen at Heysham Moss, a reserve managed by the Wildlife Trust. The reserve is home to many breeding and wintering birds. The centre of Heysham Moss is relatively pristine, with characteristic bog plants (such as bog myrtle and round-leaved sundew), mosses and liverworts, plus indigenous electricity pylons.
      Today, the whole area outside Heysham Moss is a mosaic of green fields lined with ditches and gutters that, after intensively staring at, I conclude no longer flow anywhere, let alone to Lades Marsh. Therefore, according to my self-imposed rule in the Introduction (“if rain falling on an area makes its way to the Lune estuary then the area is within my scope”), I should ignore the old Little Fylde. But if enough rain fell, then I suspect the flood would flow to Lades Marsh.

The Top 10 churches in Loyne

(for the non-religious)
      1.   St Helen’s, Overton
      2.   St John the Baptist, Tunstall
      3.   St Mary’s, Lancaster Priory
      4.   St Mary the Virgin, Kirkby Lonsdale
      5.   St Andrew’s, Sedbergh
      6.   St Wilfrid’s, Halton
      7.   St Margaret’s, Hornby
      8.   St Wilfrid’s, Melling
      9.   St Mary’s, Ingleton
      10.   St Andrew’s, Dent

ch14 map
  The Introduction
  The Previous Chapter (The Lune to Lancaster)
  The Next Chapter (Into Morecambe Bay)

    © John Self, Drakkar Press